How do vacuum cleaners work?

Different models of vacuum cleaners differ not only in power and appearance. Each appliance is endowed with basic as well as additional functions. To find the right model, you need to know how the vacuum cleaner works and what it consists of.

How dry and detergent vacuum cleaners work.

All vacuum cleaners are divided into two main types:

  • Dry;
  • Wet.

The type of control devices are:

  • Manual;
  • robots are machine guns.

The principle of work is almost the same except for additional functions.


The simplest models for dry cleaning consist of an engine, dust collector and filters. While working, the motor creates traction. Through a corrugated hose and a telescopic rod, the debris is sucked into the dust collector. Dirty air passes through the filter of fine cleaning and goes into the room. The performance of the unit depends on the force of the suction. A work nozzle is put on the telescopic rod. The item is usually made in the form of a brush. Each nozzle is designed to clean a certain surface: carpets, hard coating, hard-to-reach areas.

A special requirement is for air filtration. Cheap units have a lot of dust flying back into the room. More modern models are equipped with an additional NERA filter on the exhaust, but it also does not provide 100% cleaning.

All the collected garbage settles in the dust- and the dust. Older models used a disposable or reusable bag more often. The new vacuum cleaners are equipped with a cyclone. A dust collector is a tank from which garbage is thrown away after filling.

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How a vacuum cleaner works: additional features


The best is considered a household appliance with a water tank. The flow of dirty air through the water filter is completely cleaned of dust. The room receives perfectly purified air. There are two types of water filters on the principle of operation:

  • The barbets. Dirty air passes immediately through the water, where the impurities of dust are cleaned.
  • Separate. Dust impurities are first separated from the airflow and then released into the water.

Washing vacuum cleaners additionally have a water pump. The node creates water pressure and sprays it from the work additive on the cleaned surface. The airflow absorbs the dissolved mud.

New technologies created a household appliance with a steam supply. The unit not only collects dust but also disinfects. The steam jets penetrate the high pile of the carpet, destroying all the bacteria.

All hand-controlled vacuum cleaners for dry and wet cleaning have a corrugated hose and a telescopic tube. The nozzles are simple or turbocharged with an additional rotating roller. It is this video with bristles raking hair, wool and other debris. There is a separate type of vertical vacuum cleaner. The device’s feature is the motor’s location and pumps directly inside the brush, and on the handle is a dust collector.

Robots are automatic. The vacuum cleaner is given a cleaning program. With the help of sensors, the unit independently advances to cleaning, determines the degree of contamination, cleans the surface, and after the work returns to the base.

Expanding features

Additional devices allow expanding the functionality of the vacuum cleaner. A popular nozzle for manually controlled models is a turbo brush. The feature of the device is the presence inside the body of the roller with bristles. The rotation is caused by airflow or electric drive. The rotating roller plucks dust from the carpets, winds the hair, the hair of pets and directs all the garbage to the suction hole.

For robots invented an ultraviolet lamp. It is installed from below under the body of the device. During the cleaning of UV rays kill germs, conducting complete disinfection. Now manufacturers have started to equip lamps with expensive models with manual control.

Vacuum cleaners powered by a battery characterizes mobility. The unit is not tied to the socket. Cleaning can be done in the car, gazebo, inside cabinets. The device and the operation principle are no different from a conventional vacuum cleaner, and only the charge is enough for a maximum of 30 minutes.

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